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文脉丨追寻城市之根

河东区

快3平台HEDONGQUSHITIANJINDEFAXIANGDI、YUANSHENGDIAN,SHIYANGWUYUNDONGZAIBEIFANGDEZHONGXIN,SHIJINDAIZHONGGUOGONGYEDEYAOLAN。HEDONGQULISHIJIDIANSHENHOU,QUNEIDAZHIGUYOU800DUONIANDELISHI,SUYOU“XIANYOUDAZHIGU,HOUYOUTIANJINWEI”ZHISHUO,FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN79XIANG;WOGUODIYISUODIANBAORENCAIPEIYANGJIDI、DIYISUOLUJUNJUNGUANXUEXIAO、DIYILIANGZIZHUSHEJIZHIZAODEFEIGEZIXINGCHE、DIYIKUAIGUOCHANSHOUBIAODENGDOUDANSHENGZAIZHEILI。

快3平台JINRIHEDONG,10FENZHONGDAOJICHANG,20FENZHONGDAOBINHAIXINQU,30FENZHONGDAOBEIJING;YONGYOU8.28GONGLIZHANGDEHAIHEYANAN,YONGYOU6PINGFANGGONGLIKEKAIFADETUDI,QUWEIYOUSHIMINGXIAN;DIYIJIAZONGBUSHEZAITIANJINDEQUANGUOXINGGUFENZHISHANGYEYINXINGBOHAIYINXINGLUOHUHEDONG,SHANGYEZONGHETIMIANJIJUZHONGXINCHENGQUDIYI,SHITOUZIXINGYE、XIUXIANYULE、ANJUSHENGHUODEFUDIBAODI。

“先有大直沽,后有天津卫”

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▲ 昨天的历史是永恒的,即使她没有留下任何印迹。元代以前的大直沽,虽然文献无征,但“先有大直沽,后有天津卫”这两句话早已为世人所共识。

快3平台CHIZIYUANDAIZHIYUANNIANKAISHI,DAZHIGULISHIYOULEMINGQUEDEJIZAI。SHILIAOJIZAI: “TIANJINDIMINGZIZHIGUSHI”(《JINSHI·WANYANZUOCHUAN》),JUJINYUEYOUBABAIDUONIANDELISHI,HAIYUNDEFAZHANSHIDAZHIGUZAIYUANDAIJIUCHENGWEIJINGJI、XINGZHENG、JUNSHI、ZONGJIAOWENHUAZHONGXINHETIANJINSHANGPINJINGJIDEFAXIANGDI。MINGZHENGDENIANJIANHUWENBI《YULUNYANSHISHU》SHUO“YUANTONGSIHAI,DONGNANGONGFUJILIUJIAGANGYOUHAIDAOSHANGZHIGUDAYANDOU,ZHOUCHEYOUHUI,JULUOSHIFAN,YOUGONGGUAN、YOUJIEYUNTING、YOULINQINGWANHUFU,JIEZAIDAZHIGU”。SUOYI,DANGSHIZHENGYINWEIYAN、CAOLIANGYEDEFAZHAN,DAZHIGUCHENGWEITIANJINCHENGSHIZUIZAODEXINGZHENGHEJUNSHIGUANLIZHONGXIN,BINGCHENGXIANCHUYIPAIXINGWANGFANRONGJINGXIANG。

妈祖文化──精致绵长的信仰

▲ 天妃码头

YUANCHAOJIANDOUHOU,TIANJINCHENGWEIZHENGFUNANLIANGBEIYUNDEZHONGDIAN,CAOYUNBUDUANXINGSHENG,YUSHIDUIMAZUDEJISIHUODONGYESUIZHEHAISHIHAINANDEPINFANERHONGHUOQILAI。SHANGZHIHUANGJIAXIAZHIGUANMINRENDENG,DOUSHIFENGUANXINCAOYUNDEANQUAN,ERYOUWANGTIANFEIZHIBIYOU。NEISHI,DANGHAISHANG“RUONAIXIANYUNZHAOYIN,JINGFENGQIE,HONGTAOTENGTA,KUAIFANCUIZHUANG,CHUANGONGMENSHUSHOUWANGCUO,MINGZAIQINGKE”;TAMENSUICHENGSHOUQIANXINWANKU,QUEDANZHANXINJING,BUZHIDUOSHAORENZANGSHENYUFU。YUSHI,CHUANGONGMENJITUOHANGHAINVSHENTIANFEIDEBIHU,YIBAOYOUTAMENCHUHAIPINGAN。JIUZHEIYANG,DONGNANYANHAIRENMINSUOQIANXINDEHUHANGNVSHEN“MAZU”BEIDIYICIGONGFENGDAOLEBEIFANG。

▲ 古代妈祖石雕像

ZHIYUANNIANJIANZAIDAZHIGUJIANLILEZHONGGUOBEIFANGDIYIZUOMAZUMIAO——TIANFEILINGCIGONG。MEINIANYOUHUANGDIQIANSHIBEILIZHIJI,HUOJIAOFUGUANCAOSIJIDANGDIFUGUANXINGJI。DAZHIGUMAZUWENHUAJIUCICHANSHENG,BINGYONGXIANCHUDALIANGDECHUANSHUOGUSHI、SHIJIJIZAI、BEIWEN、SHICIDENGWENHUAYICHAN;TIANJINDETIANFEIGONGYUFUJIANMEIZHOUMAZUMIAO、TAIWANBEIGANGCHAOTIANGONGBINGCHENGWEIZHONGGUOSANDAMAZUMIAO。

▲ 天妃宫与天后宫(现位于天津市南开区古文化街内)东西相望,布局有大殿、后殿、东西配殿、二门、山门、戏楼等建筑。上图为天妃宫建筑模型。

2006NIAN5YUE25RI,TIANFEIGONGYIZHIBEIZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGUOWUYUANGONGBUWEIDILIUPIQUANGUOZHONGDIANWENWUBAOHUDANWEI。

▲ 2002年,在天妃宫原址上兴建的元明清天妃宫遗址博物馆正式开馆。陈列由“浩瀚的海洋”“神气的妈祖”“海与河的城市”“永恒的遗址”4个部分组成。

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北方洋务运动的中心

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快3平台ZAIZUOZHENTIANJINDEZHILIZONGDU、BEIYANGDACHENLIHONGZHANGDETUIDONGZHIXIA,DAZHIGUYIDAICHUANGBANLEBEIYANGJIQIJU,BEIYANGSHUISHIXUETANG,HAIYOUJIANLIZAIYUANLIUSHUXINGGONGJIUZHISHANGDEBEIYANGWUBEIXUETANGDENG,XINGCHENGLE“LIANGTANGYIJU”DEBEIFANGYANGWUYUNDONGZHONGXIN,CHENGWEIQINGMOBEIFANGZHONGYAODEJUNSHIGONGYEJIKEXUEJISHUJIDI、ZHONGYAODEJUNSHIJIAOYUJIDI、ZHONGYAODEYANGWURENCAIJIDI、ZHONGYAODESIXIANGWENHUACHUANBOJIDI。YIXIEYANGWUSHESHI、FAMINGCHUANGZAO,NAIZHIJIECHURENWU,DOUZAIQUANGUOCHUYULINGXIANDIWEI,KANCHENGDIYI:

快3平台QINGMOYAZHOUZUIDAZUIHAODEHUOYAOZHIZAOCHANG、ZHONGGUOZUIDADEJUNHUOGONGCHANG——TIANJINJIQIJU(DONGJU,1866NIANCHUNCHUANGBAN)

ZHONGGUOBEIFANGDIYISUODIANBAOSHUILEIXUETANG(1876NIAN5YUEJIANLI)

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快3平台ZHONGGUOZUIZAODEXINSHIHAIJUNJUNGUANXUEXIAO——BEIYANGSHUISHIXUETANG(1881NIAN)

快3平台ZHONGGUODIYISUOPEIYANGJINDAILUJUNJUNGUANDEJUNSHIYUANXIAO、DIYISUOPEIYANGJINDAITIELURENCAIDEXUEXIAO——TIANJINWUBEIXUETANG(1885NIAN)

ZHONGGUODIYIGEJINDAIHUAZHUBICHANGBEIYANGZHUBICHANG(YOUMINGTIANJINJIQIJUZHUQIANJU,1890NIAN)

快3平台ZHONGGUORENZIJIZHICHENGDEDIYIGEQINGQIQIUZAIWUBEIXUETANGSHENGKONG。

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中国最早的陆军军官学校──北洋武备学堂

QINGGUANGXUSHIYINIAN(1885NIAN),LIHONGZHANGZAIYUANLIUSHUXINGGONGJIUZHISHANGCHUANGBANLEYISUOZHONGGUOZUIZAODELUJUNJUNGUANXUEXIAO——BEIYANGWUBEIXUETANG。GAIXUETANGCONGDANGSHILUJUNZUIXIANJINDEDEGUOPINQINGJIAOSHI,KECHENGSHEZHIYICANKAODEGUO,LIQIUYONGZUIXIANJINDEJIAOXUESHOUDUANHEJIAOXUELINIANPEIYANGXINXINGLUJUNJUNGUAN。GAIXUETANGDEXUEGUIZHANGCHENG,DIANDINGLEWANQINGLUJUNXUETANGNEIBUZHIDUDEJICHU,HOUWEIHUNAN、ANHUI、SHANXI、HENAN、SHANXIDENGSHENGCHUANGBANWUBEIXUETANGSUOCANYONG。1900NIANBAGUOLIANJUNRUQIN,WUBEIXUETANGDEAIGUOJIAOGUANHEXUEYUANFENQIKANGJI,ZHANDOUZHONG90YUMINGXUEYUANYINGYONGXISHENG。

▲ 天津武备学堂原址在天津大光明桥东河沿。从这个学堂走出的毕业生,很多后来都成了北洋政府军界、政界的风云人物。如曾任大总统的冯国璋和曹锟,曾任国务总理和执政的段祺瑞,曾任国务总理兼陆军总长的张绍曾、靳云鹏,此外还有数十位督军、总长、省长等高官。1900年八国联军攻陷天津,学堂被焚毁。

中国共产党出世以前

向西方寻找真理的一派人物──严复

▲ 严复(1854年1月8日—1921年10月27日),原名宗光,字又陵,后改名复,字几道,汉族,福建侯官县人,近代极具影响力的资产阶级启蒙思想家,著名的翻译家、教育家 ,新法家代表人物。毛泽东曾称赞他是“中国共产党出世以前向西方寻找真理的一派人物”之一。

ZAIHEDONGSHENGHUOLEZHENGZHENG20NIAN、ZHUCHIBEIYANGSHUISHIXUETANGJIAOWUDEYANFU,QINGGUANGXUWUNIAN(1879NIAN)BIYEYUYINGGUOHAIJUNXUEYUANERGUIGUO,ZHUANNIAN(1880NIAN)JIBEILIHONGZHANGDIAOZHITIANJINCHUANGBANBEIYANGSHUISHIXUETANG,XIANRENZONGJIAOXI(JIAOWUZHANG),HOUYOUSHENGRENHUIBAN(FUXIAOZHANG)、ZONGBAN(XIAOZHANG)。CONG1881NIANCHUANGBANZHI1900NIANBEIHUIMIE,YANFUJINGLILEGAIXUETANGXINGWANGDEQUANGUOCHENG。

BENLAI,YANFUZAIBEIYANGSHUISHIXUETANG,SHIREZHONGYANGWUERYIXINBANXUEDE,DANGUANGXUERSHINIAN(1894NIAN)JIAWUHAIZHANDEBAOFAJICINIANBEIYANGHAIJUNDEQUANJUNFUMIE,QUESHITASHENSHOUZHENHAN。TASHENSHENRENSHIDAO,ZHIYINJINXIFANGDEJISHUERBUYINJINXIFANGDESIXIANG,SHIWUFASHIXIANZIQIANGMUDEDE。ERYUQIUZIQIANG,SHOUXIANXUDUIGUOMINSIXIANGGUANNIANSHANGZUOYIFANWEIXIN。YUSHI,TAZAIZHUCHIXIAOWUZHIYU,JIELIANZHUANXIEBINGYUTIANJIN《ZHIBAO》FABIAOLEYIXILIEJINGSHIHAISUDEWENZHANG: 《LUNSHIBIANZHIJI》、《YUANQIANG》、《PIHAN》、《YUANQIANGXUPIAN》HE《JIUWANGJUELUN》,HUOSHANPENFABANDIXIANGGUORENTICHULEMINZHU、ZIYOU、PINGDENGDEXINZHUZHANG,ZHANDOUFENGMANGZHIZHIFENGJIANZHUANZHI。YUCITONGSHI,TAHAIZHESHOUFANYILEZHUMINGDE《TIANYANLUN》,YI“WUJINGTIANZE,SHIZHESHENGCUN”DELILUN,JILIQUANDAOGUORENBIXUZIZHUYUZILI。CISHUDEYICHENGFABIAO,HONGDONGYISHI,ZHUDUOAIGUOZHISHICONGZHONGXUNDAOLESIXIANGWUQI,ERHOUDEMAOZEDONG、LUXUN、GUOMORUODENG,WUYIBUSHOUDAOLEZHEIBUSHUDESHENKEYINGXIANG。

▲ 康有为见到此书后,称赞严复“译《天演论》为中国西学第一者也”。梁启超因之宣讲“进化者天地之公例也”。蔡元培在《五十年来中国之哲学》中盛赞: “近五十年来西洋哲学,推侯官严复为第一。”

WEILEGENGHAODIXUANCHUANZIJIDEWEIXINSIXIANG,YANFUHAIYUEJIHAOYOUZAIJINCHUANGBANLE《GUOWENBAO》。GAIBAOWEIZHENGZAIPENGBOKAIZHANDEWEIXINYUNDONGHELUXUBANBUDEBIANZHENGXINFAERYAOQINAHAN,HENDUOJIANRUI、POLADEZHONGYAOWENZHANG,DOUCHUZIYUYANSHISHOUBI。CIBAOHELIANGQICHAOZAISHANGHAICHUANGBANDE《SHIWUBAO》YINANYIBEI,CHENGLEWEIXINYUNDONGLIANGMIANQIZHIHELIANGDAZHENDI。ZHEIYISHIQIGONGZUOZAIHEDONGDEYANFU,KEWEISIXIANGZUIHUOYUE,GUANDIANZUIXINRUI,PIPANJINGSHENZUIZHANGYANG,TAWEIZHONGGUORENMINDESIXIANGQIMENGZUOCHULEBUKEMOMIEDEJIECHUGONGXIAN。

中国最早的商埠火车站

──天津老龙头

SHIJIUSHIJIBASHINIANDAI,ZHILIZONGDULIHONGZHANGZAITIANJINXINGXIUTIELU,KAICHUANGLEZHONGGUODAGUIMOXIUJIANTIELUZHIXIANHE。TIANJINXIUJIANTIELU,YUANZIKAIPINGMEIKUANGYUNMEIDEXUYAO。

QINGGUANGXUSINIAN(1878NIAN),KAIPINGKUANGWUJUZAITIANJINZHENGSHICHENGLI,WEITANGTINGSHUWEIZONGBAN。GUANGXUSHISINIANJIUYUECHUWU(1888NIAN10YUE19RI),TANGJIN(TANGSHAN-TIANJIN)TIELUTONGCHE,TIANJINHUOCHEZHANJIANZAIHEDONGWANGDAOZHUANG。DANGSHI,CHEZHANAN“YUNMEIWEIZHU,JIANBANXIAOXINGKEHUOYUNSHU”SHEJIJIANCHENG。WEIMANZUXIUJIANJINYU(TIANJIN-SHANHAIGUAN)、JINLU(TIANJIN-BEIJINGLUGOUQIAO)TIELUDEXUYAO,TIANJINHUOCHEZHANZIWANGDAOZHUANGQIANZHIJIJIALOU、HUOSHENMIAOZHONGJIAN。

GUANGXUSHIBANIAN(1892NIAN),XINJIANHUOCHEZHANJUNGONG,QUMING“LAOLONGTOU”HUOCHEZHAN,CHENGWEIZHONGGUOZUIZAODESHANGBUCHEZHAN。

▲ 1899年《天津城厢保甲全图》中记载的天津铁路运输场景。

BAIYUNIANLAI,ZUOLUOYUHAIHEZHIBINDETIANJINLAOLONGTOUJIJINGGENGMING,LIJINCANGSANG。TALIJINGQINGMO、MINGUO、GONGHEGUOSANGESHIQI,BAOSHOUBAGUOLIANJUNHERIKOURUQINDECHUANGSHANG,MUDULEKEGEKEQIDEDOUZHENGGUSHI,TONGSHIYEJIANZHENGLETIANJINTIELUDEFAZHANHEBIANQIAN。

▲ 上图为1937年前后的老龙头火车站。车站门口豪华小轿车停成一排,广场一侧是黄包车等候区。

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▲ 1988年建成的新天津站。

▲ 1988年新天津站前厅的巨型穹顶油画《精卫填海》。

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